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Dividends in the GDR are paid in the domestic country’s agency, which is susceptible to Forex market volatility. The holder of GDR shares is entitled to bonuses and dividends based on the value of the shares. The price of a GDR is determined by the price of the share it owns, as well as the supply and demand for that GDR. They give investors a chance to diversify their holdings globally. Only companies with a three-year sound financial record can get access to GDRs. Thus, Indian companies should get clearance from the Ministry of Finance and Foreign Investment Promotion Board to obtain GDRs.

GDRs are a way for foreign companies to raise capital in foreign markets without having to list their shares on the local stock exchange. Instead, a bank buys the shares of the foreign company and issues GDRs in exchange. The bank holds the underlying shares and issues GDRs representing those shares to investors. GDRs are denominated in a currency such as US dollars and traded on international stock exchanges.

  • In conclusion, GDRs are a popular way for companies to raise capital in international markets.
  • GDR is the only way through which Indian companies can make their shares available on various foreign exchanges.
  • These GDRs are then traded on stock markets in countries other than the United States.
  • The range is flexible, despite the fact that one GDR certificate holds ten shares.

I put words in a simplified manner and write easy-to-understand articles. They may have poor liquidity, making it challenging to sell them. Companies can carry out a private offering that is efficient and affordable. They help multinational businesses to connect with many investors.

In 2018, Tata Motors issued 7 million GDRs on the Luxembourg Stock Exchange, each representing six underlying shares of the company. The GDRs were priced at $23.50 per share and raised a total of $124.5 million. The GDRs also provided Infosys with access to a broader pool of international investors and helped to improve liquidity for the company’s shares. The shares are denominated in the deposit receipt issuer’s local currency. Investors in international markets earn to invest in shares of the company that they may otherwise have been unqualified because of many restrictions or administrative issues. Global Depository Receipt is an instrument in which a company located in a domestic country issues one or more of its shares or convertible bonds outside the domestic country.

What are the disadvantages of GDRs for investors?

Companies can do this by trading the shares on foreign exchanges. The local custodian bank then acts as the overseas depository bank’s agent and holds the equity shares in its possession. Indian companies can get listed on foreign exchanges only through a Global Depository Receipt . Therefore, through a GDR, Indian companies get access to foreign funds. This article covers what a GDR is, its features, how they are issued, how they work, and ADR vs GDR. The key benefit for GDR issuers is that their shares can reach a wider and more diverse audience of potential investors.


The Company is required to comply with the provisions of the Foreign Currency Convertible Bonds and Ordinary Shares Scheme, 1993 (“DR Scheme”) and guidelines issued thereunder by the Central Government from time to time. Notwithstanding anything contained under section 88 of the Act, until the redemption of depository receipts, the name of the overseas depository bank shall be entered in the Register of Members of the company. For facilitating long term debt instruments and for generating capital, Investors use capital markets that involve ADR, GDR, and IDR. The issuance of these receipts is the most efficient and widely known method of raising capital from foreign capital markets. Also, it provides an opportunity for foreign investors to invest in domestic companies.

Companies (Issue of Global Depository Receipts) Amendment Rules, 2020 dated 13.02.2020

A Global Depositary Receipt may be issued for one or more underlying shares or bonds held with the Domestic Custodian Bank. All transactions of trading of the Global Depositary Receipts outside India, among non-resident investors, will be free from any liability to income-tax in India on capital gains therefrom. However, only companies with a sound financial record of three years can get access to GDRs. Thus, to obtain GDRs, Indian companies should get clearance from the Foreign Investment Promotion Board and the Ministry of Finance.

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Additionally, having their shares listed on well-known international exchanges can raise the stature or legitimacy of a foreign company that would otherwise be unknown. Indian companies who want to issue GDRs mustgetMinistry of Finance and FIPB clearance. GDRs allow investors to gain access to international companies’ capital markets without dealing with language, currency or tax restrictions.

Any foreign individual or company can use Depository Receipts to enter and tap different markets in order to generate cash and create a trading presence in overseas markets. Every country in the world wishes to expand its business and have a presence in the global market. A Global Depository Receipt is a type of receipt that allows any corporation to issue shares on a stock market outside of the United States. GDRs are exchange-traded assets in which an intermediary buys a large number of shares in a foreign firm and converts them into GDRs that may be traded on a local stock exchange.


Equity shareholders’ voting rights are transferred to the depository bank. Indian companies can only get their shares listed on foreign exchanges through Global Depository Receipts . GDRs help Indian companies get foreign funds and gain access to international capital. It is important to note that the definition of ‘shares’ under the Takeover Regulations includes depository receipts carrying an entitlement to exercise voting rights in the target company. But, on the other hand, if an individual DR holder acquires 25% or more of the voting rights in the target company, then he shall comply with the obligation of making a public announcement for open offer.

Depositary receipts are just more practical and more affordable than buying stocks on foreign exchanges. The depository bank has the ability to convert GDRs into shares for trading on their home market. GDR is denominated in any distant places forex, alternatively the underlying shares would be denominated in the nearby overseas money of the issuer. Just upload your form 16, claim your deductions and get your acknowledgment number online.

More About Stock / Share Market

The number of shares a GDR can hold is referred to as the conversion ration. The range is flexible, despite the fact that one GDR certificate holds ten shares. I am an advocate by profession and have a keen interest in writing. I write articles in various categories, from legal, business, personal finance, and investments to government schemes.

  • Many financial intermediaries misguide you to make quick profits.
  • The Income Tax Act of 1961 treats the conversion of GDRs into shares as a transfer, and neither section 47 nor any other portion of that act exempts such a transfer.
  • Through Depository Receipt, any foreign individual or company can enter and tap multiple markets to raise funds and establish the trading presence in the foreign markets.

A company can get itself registered on an overseas stock exchange or over the counter and its shares can be traded in more than one currency. Indian Corporation published their equity shares in Indian rupees to an Overseas depository bank by a domestic custodian Bank. Not only the number of stocks that are traded on domestic and international exchanges can be boosted but the exchange of information, market transparency, and technology can also be boosted at the same time. Investors still face economic risks due to the possibility of a recession, bank failures, or political unrest in the nation where the overseas company is based. As a result, any increased hazards in the foreign country would cause the value of the depository receipt to change.

Difference between GDR and ADR

GDRs are easy and more cost effective than buying stocks on international exchanges. The investors get bonus shares and dividends of the underlying GDRs. To open an account abroad to receive the subscription monies in foreign currency. Beijing is stepping up plans for a new ‘mini-IPO” market to help the country’s army of small companies access capital quickly. Please note that your stock broker has to return the credit balance lying with them, within three working days in case you have not done any transaction within last 30 calendar days. Please note that in case of default of a Member, claim for funds and securities, without any transaction on the exchange will not be accepted by the relevant Committee of the Exchange as per the approved norms.

Listed entities in the private sector have learnt well over time the need for regulatory oversight and discipline. They have also benefited tremendously by raising funds from the market. Some have even successfully ventured to get their American depositary receipts /global depository receipts listed in foreign jurisdictions.

Under the provisions of the Income-tax Act, income by way of dividend on shares will be taxed at the rate of 10 per cent. The issuing company shall transfer the dividend payments net after deduct tax at source to the Overseas Depositary Bank. Rise in the capital of the issuing company because of foreign investors. Please read all scheme related documents carefully before investing.

This helps the company in emerging markets thereby increasing the prospects of such company to grow. A GDR is a negotiable financial instrument issued by a foreign bank other than the United States that represents securities of a foreign firm listed on any stock exchange other than the United States. Domestic investors invest in enterprises based outside of their home country, with dividends paid in Euro or GBP to GDR holders. US depository banks issue ADRs in exchange for shares of non-US companies traded on the US stock market. International depository banks issue GDRs to represent shares of a foreign company traded on the international market.

Chinese firms speed up Swiss listings with 36 in pipeline: market data – Global Times

Chinese firms speed up Swiss listings with 36 in pipeline: market data.

Posted: Thu, 16 Feb 2023 08:00:00 GMT [source]

The Indian company should engage with a foreign depository bank in a depositary receipt agreement. These banks issue shares on their respective stock exchanges based on regulatory compliance in both nations. Trade shares on international exchanges except for the US through a GDR. Aforeign depository issues the depository receipts for Indian companies. The depository bank is the intermediary that acts as the custodian of the shares issued by the Indian company.

ADRs are issued in the United States and represent ownership in a foreign company, while GDRs are issued outside the United States and are traded on international stock exchanges. The depository bank is recognised as the registered owner of the equity shares of the company in its books since these shares are issued to the depository bank. The holders of GDRs have an option to exchange their GDRs for the equity shares of the company and such holders then become the owner of the equity shares of the company. Since at the beginning it is the depository bank holding the equity shares, hence it has all the voting rights given to any equity shareholder. Through Depository Receipt, any foreign individual or company can enter and tap multiple markets to raise funds and establish the trading presence in the foreign markets. Every country across the world wants to expand its business and mark its footprint in the International Market.

The first foreign Corporation to publish an IDR was the Standard Chartered Bank. This is issued by a foreign firm that cannot go through the Indian listing process. It is believed to be beneficial for a foreign firm who wishes to share the risk and rewards of the offerings with the Indian shareholders. The bank converts the GDRs into shares to trade them on the country’s stock exchange. The country’s investors can sell and buy the shares just like any other security. Global Depository Receipt are certificates issued by a depository bank, which purchases foreign company shares and deposits them in the account.

Tata Motors claimed that JLR is continuing to focus on signing long-term partnership agreements with chip suppliers, which is improving visibility of future chip supply. Tata Motors Group CFO PB Balaji said JLR has an order book of 205,000 units, which is seeing an uptick despite global uncertainties and the company does not expect any adverse impact immediately. Check your securities / MF / bonds in the consolidated account statement issued by NSDL/CDSL every month.

The actual purchase of the assets is multi-staged, involving a broker located within the market of the international company, a broker in the investor’s country, a custodian bank and a depositary bank representing the buyer. But, the shares in the foreign country are settled and traded separately from the underlying share. These markets, as the name suggests, are used to provide the trade of long-term debt instruments and for generating capital.

More Chinese firms launch GDRs in Europe – Global Times

More Chinese firms launch GDRs in Europe.

Posted: Tue, 27 Dec 2022 08:00:00 GMT [source]

global depository receipts also may provide investors with the benefits and rights of the underlying shares, which could include voting rights and dividends. The holders of GDRs are entitled to all the rights of a shareholder with respect to dividend and capital gains and can be purchased and sold like other securities. This enables the investors in any country to purchase the securities of any other country without any currency or language barriers. Another disadvantage of GDRs is that they may not provide the same level of shareholder rights as investing directly in a company’s shares. GDRs are held in custody by a bank, which means that investors may not have the same voting rights or other shareholder rights as they would if they held the shares directly. The fundamental shares shall be denominated in the local currency of the issuer but GDR is always denominated in foreign currency.

GDRs are commonly used to raise capital from international investors through public stock offerings or private placement. It can be said that the use of GDRs enables individuals to have access to the capital markets of the foreign company without any concerns regarding currency, language, or tax laws. Further, the holder of GDRs has same rights as that of equity shareholders. Companies that issue GDRs benefit as well, by gaining access to more potential investors. The companies have an opportunity to raise additional capital GDRs offer the opportunity to broaden the company’s base of shareholders and to raise additional capital.

GDRs can be issued by private placement, public offering or any other method acceptable in the relevant jurisdiction, according to the new rules. GDRs are negotiable financial instruments traded on the stock exchanges like any other security. Before 2005, all companies were permitted to issue GDRs, however, post 2005, certain amendments were made as a result of which now only listed companies can make issuance of GDRs in foreign markets. It depends on the company whether they want to offer GDR as a public issue or as a private placement to selected group of individuals. Similarly, GDR holders have certain benefits over preferential shareholders. Also certain types of GDRs issuances enjoy an exemption from the open offer requirements under the Securities and Exchange Board of India Regulations, 1997, as long as they are not converted into equity shares.